"Could you clarify the terms resonance, vibration and damping"
Here are some succinct definitions...
The increase in amplitude of oscillation of an electric or mechanical system exposed to a periodic force
whose frequency is equal or very close to the natural undamped frequency of the system.
Random House Unabridged Dictionary
The oscillating, reciprocating, or other periodic motion of a rigid or elastic body or medium forced from
a position or state of equilibrium
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language
The action of a substance or of an element in a mechanical or electrical device that reduces the degree
of oscillation, vibration, or signal intensity.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary